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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 24, 2023

 

Registration No. 333-238240

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

Post-Effective Amendment Number 2 to

FORM S-1

REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

Propanc Biopharma, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware   2834   33-0662986

(State of

Incorporation)

 

(Primary Standard Industrial

Classification Number)

 

(IRS Employer

Identification Number)

 

James Nathanielsz

Chief Executive Officer

Propanc Biopharma, Inc.

302, 6 Butler Street

Camberwell, VIC, 3124 Australia

+61-03-9882-0780

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code,

of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

Please send copies of all communications to:

 

Randolf W. Katz, Esq.

Clark Hill LLP

1055 West Seventh Street, 24th Floor

Los Angeles, California 90017

Tel. No.: (213) 417-5310

(Address, including zip code, and telephone, including area code)

 

Approximate date of proposed sale to the public:

 

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box. ☒

 

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large accelerated filer ☐ Accelerated filer ☐
Non-accelerated filer Smaller reporting company
  Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by checkmark if the registrant has not elected to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐

 

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 

   

 

 

EXPLANATORY NOTE

 

On May 13, 2020, Propanc Biopharma, Inc. (the “Company”) filed a Registration Statement on Form S-1 (No. 333-238240) (the “Registration Statement”) with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) that was subsequently declared effective on November 12, 2020. The Registration Statement registered the resale of up to 150,000,000 shares of the Company’s Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share by the selling security holder identified in the prospectus contained therein.

 

This Post-Effective Amendment Number 2 is being filed pursuant to the undertakings in Item 16 of the Registration Statement to update and supplement the information to (i) include the information in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2022, as filed with the SEC on September 28, 2022, (ii) include the information in the Company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended December 31, 2022, as filed with the SEC on February 10, 2023, (iii) include the information in the Company’s Current Reports filed on Form 8-K with the SEC on October 12, 2022, November 1, 2022, February 21, 2023, and March 6, 2023, and (iv) make certain other updates as contained herein.

 

The Registration Statement originally covered, on an adjusted one-for-1,000 reverse stock split of the Common Stock, a primary offering of (i) 805 shares of Common Stock (ii) 10,445 shares of Common Stock underlying pre-funded warrants to purchase Common Stock, (iii) 11,250 shares of Common Stock underlying Series A Warrants to purchase Common Stock, (iv) 63,750 shares of Common Stock underlying Series B Warrants to purchase Common Stock, and (v) 63,750 shares of Common Stock underlying Series C Warrants to purchase Common Stock.

 

This Post-Effective Amendment covers the sale of 23,750  shares of Common Stock underlying Series B Warrants to purchase Common Stock.

 

All share and per-share information in this Post-Effective Amendment has been adjusted to reflect a one-for-1,000 reverse stock split of the Company’s Common Stock, which was effective on November 19, 2020.

 

No additional securities are being registered under this Post-Effective Amendment. All applicable registration fees were paid at the time of the original filing of the Registration Statement.

 

 

 

 

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS SUBJECT TO COMPLETION DATED MARCH [_], 2023

 

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Propanc Biopharma, Inc.

 

23,750 Shares of Common Stock Issuable Upon Exercise of Outstanding Series B Warrants

 

This prospectus relates to the issuance of up to 23,750 shares of Common Stock underlying warrants (the “Series B Warrant”) currently outstanding. Each Series B Warrant has an exercise price per share equal to $40.00 per share and will expire on the three-year anniversary of its original issuance date. The Purchaser is not permitted to exercise portion of the Series B Warrants that would result in the Purchaser, together with its affiliates and certain related parties, beneficially owning more than 4.99% of our outstanding Common Stock following the consummation of this offering.

 

Our shares of Common Stock are currently quoted on the OTCQB® Venture Market (the “OTCQB”) operated by the OTC Markets Group Inc., under the ticker symbol “PPCB.” On March 22, 2023, the closing price as reported on the OTCQB was $0.0005. This price will fluctuate based on the demand for our Common Stock.

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before buying any securities, you should read the discussion of material risks of investing in our Common Stock under the heading “Risk Factors” beginning on page [27] of this prospectus.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any foreign or state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

The Selling Stockholder of the securities and any of its pledgees, assignees and successors-in-interest may, from time to time, offer Common Stock at prevailing market prices at the time of the sale, at fixed prices, at negotiated prices, or at varying prices determined at the time of sale.

 

See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page [55] of this prospectus for more information.

 

We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of shares of Common Stock by the Selling Stockholder. See “Use of Proceeds.”

 

This prospectus provides a general description of the securities being offered. You should read this prospectus and the registration statement of which it forms a part before you invest in any securities.

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page [27] of this prospectus for a discussion of information that should be considered in connection with an investment in our securities.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement or amendment hereto. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely upon it. This prospectus is not an offer to sell, nor is the selling stockholder seeking an offer to buy, securities in any state where such offer or solicitation is not permitted. The information in this prospectus is complete and accurate only as of the date on the front cover of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of shares of our Common Stock. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date.

 

The date of this prospectus is [__], 2023.

 

   

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Prospectus Summary 4
Risk Factors 27
Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements 52
Use of Proceeds 54
Determination of Offering Price 54
Selling Stockholder 54
Plan of Distribution 55
Market for Our Common Stock and Related Stockholder Matters 57
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations 58
Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance 69
Executive Compensation 75
Transactions with Related Persons, Promoters and certain Control Persons and Director Independence 80
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management 82
Description of Capital Stock 83
Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure 89
Where You Can Find More Information 89
Index to Consolidated Financial Statements F-1

 

Propanc Biopharma, Inc., the Propanc Biopharma logo, and other trademarks or service marks of Propanc Biopharma appearing in this prospectus are the property of Propanc Biopharma, Inc. This prospectus also includes trademarks, tradenames and service marks that are the property of other organizations. Solely for convenience, trademarks and tradenames referred to in this prospectus appear without the ® and ™ symbols, but those references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights, or that the applicable owner will not assert its rights, to these trademarks and tradenames.

 

You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus or in any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). We have not authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representation not contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference. We do not take any responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any information that others may provide to you. This prospectus is not an offer to sell or an offer to buy securities in any jurisdiction where offers and sales are not permitted. The information in this prospectus is accurate only as of its date, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of securities. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front cover of those documents, or that the information contained in any document incorporated by reference is accurate as of any date other than the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of a security. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

 

We have not done anything that would permit a public offering of the securities or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the securities and the distribution of this prospectus outside of the United States.

 

 

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 

The following summary highlights information contained elsewhere or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and does not contain all of the information you should consider in making your investment decision. You should read this summary together with the more detailed information, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included in this prospectus, contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should carefully consider, among other things, the matters discussed under the headings “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and in our consolidated financial statements, before making an investment decision. You should also read and consider the information in the documents to which we have referred you in “Where You Can Find Additional Information” And “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference.”

 

As used in this prospectus, unless the context otherwise requires, references to “we,” “us,” “our,” “our Company,” the “Company” and “Propanc” refer to Propanc Biopharma, Inc. and our wholly owned subsidiary Propanc PPY LTD.

 

Business Overview

 

Propanc Biopharma is a biopharmaceutical company developing a novel approach to prevent recurrence and metastasis from solid tumors by using pancreatic proenzymes that target and eradicate cancer stem cells in patients suffering from pancreatic, ovarian and colorectal cancers. Our novel proenzyme therapy is based on the science that enzymes stimulate biological reactions in the body, especially enzymes secreted by the pancreas. These pancreatic enzymes could represent the body’s primary defense against cancer.

 

Our lead product candidate, PRP, is a variation upon our novel formulation and involves proenzymes, the inactive precursors of enzymes. As a result of positive early indications of the anti-cancer effects of our technology, we have conducted successful pre-clinical studies on PRP and also commenced preparation for a clinical study in advanced cancer patients. Subject to us receiving sufficient financing, we plan to begin our Investigational Medicinal Product Dossier, study proposal and Investigator’s Brochure in the 2023 calendar year. Our plan is to then commence our study preparation process with the contract research organization, analytical lab and trial site(s) selection and to begin our clinical trial application for PRP (“CTA”) compilation in the first calendar quarter of 2023 and complete the CTA compilation and submit the CTA in the first half of 2023. In the second quarter of 2023, we plan to begin the preparation of logistics and trial site initiation visits. Subject to raising additional sufficient capital, we subsequently plan to commence a First-In-Human (FIH), Phase Ib study in patients with advanced solid tumors, evaluating the safety, pharmacokinetics and anti-tumor efficacy of PRP in the second half of 2023 calendar year, which study we hope to complete within twelve months thereafter. We intend to develop our PRP to treat early-stage cancer and pre-cancerous diseases and as a preventative measure for patients at risk of developing cancer based on genetic screening.

 

PRP is an intravenous injection proenzyme treatment designed as a therapeutic option in cancer treatment and prevention. PRP is a combination of the pancreatic proenzymes, trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen. PRP produces multiple effects on cancerous cells intended to inhibit tumor growth and potentially stop a tumor from spreading through the body.

 

We received notification from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) that PRP had been conferred Orphan Drug Designation for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. This special status is granted when a rare disease or condition is implicated and a potential treatment qualifies under the Orphan Drug Act and applicable FDA regulations.

 

A Certificate for Advance Overseas Finding was received from the Board of Innovation and Science Australia to receive up to a 43.5% “cash back” benefit from overseas R&D expenses. The finding relates to the planned Phase 1 clinical trial – Multiple Ascending Dose Studies of proteolytic proenzymes for the treatment of advanced cancer patients suffering from solid tumors planned to be conducted at the Peter MacCallum Center, Melbourne, Australia. Overseas activities to be undertaken include the development of an analytical assay for the quantification of active pharmaceutical ingredients in the Company’s lead product candidate, PRP, and its manufacture of the finished product for the Phase 1 clinical trial.

 

4

 

 

Our POP1 joint research and drug discovery program is designed to produce a backup clinical compound to the lead product candidate, PRP. With the aim of producing large quantities of trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen for commercial use, exhibiting minimal variation between lots and without sourcing the proenzymes from animals, Propanc Biopharma is undertaking a challenging research project in collaboration with the Universities of Jaén and Granada. We entered into a second two-year joint research and collaboration agreement with the University of Jaén who are undertaking the research activities for the POP1 program.

 

OUR FOCUS

 

Cancer occurs when cells in the body start to divide quickly and uncontrollably with an ability to migrate from one location and spread to distant sites. A cell becomes cancerous when it becomes undifferentiated. The cell forgets to do its job and invests all its energy to proliferating. Unlike normal cells, cancer cells multiply, but do not differentiate.

 

Common cancer therapies take advantage of the uncontrolled proliferation of the cancer cells and kill these cells by targeting the cell division machinery. These therapies are effective but affect healthy cells as well, particularly those with a high rate of cell turnover, inducing undesirable side effects.

 

Our goal is to stop cancer not by targeting tumor cell death, but inducing cell differentiation. This is known as differentiation therapy. The key focus is to convince the malignant cells to stop proliferating and return to do their work as a specific cell type. Differentiation therapy does not target cell death, so healthy cells within the patient will not be compromised, unlike chemotherapeutic drugs or gamma irradiation.

 

Differentiation therapy induces the cancer cells into the pathway of terminal differentiation and eventual senescence (i.e., a non-proliferative state). Differentiation therapy acts not only against cancer cells, but interestingly can turn cancer stem cells (undifferentiated cells) towards completely differentiated (i.e., normal) cells.

 

There are natural elements within our body that could help us fight against cancer. Enzymes are natural proteins that stimulate and accelerate biological reactions in the body. Particularly enzymes secreted by the exocrine pancreas that are essential for the digestion of proteins and fats. More than one hundred years ago, Professor John Beard first proposed that pancreatic enzymes represent the body’s primary defense against cancer and would be useful as a cancer treatment. Since then, several scientists have endorsed Beard´s hypothesis with encouraging data from patient treatment.

 

We are developing a long-term therapy based on a pancreatic proenzyme formulation to prevent tumor recurrence and metastasis, the main cause of patient death from cancer. PRP is a novel, patented, formulation consisting of two proenzymes mixed in a synergetic ratio.

 

After extensive laboratory research and a limited amount of human data, we have evidence that PRP:

 

  Reduces cancer cell growth via promotion of cell differentiation;
  Enhances cell adhesion and may suppress metastasis progression;
  Exhibited no observable serious side effects and improves patient survival;
  Alters the external microenvironment of malignant tumors, preventing tumors from returning and spreading.

 

PRP

 

PRP is a mixture of two proenzymes, trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen from bovine pancreas administered by intravenous injection. A synergistic ratio of 1:6 inhibits growth of most tumor cells. Examples include kidney, ovarian, breast, brain, prostate, colorectal, lung liver, uterine and skin cancers.

 

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Mechanism Of Action

 

Metastasis occurs because a program inside the cell, called the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is activated, which causes epithelial cancer cells to become invasive and stem cell-like, features which then allow these cancer cells to spread and metastasize. PRP reverses the conversion from an epithelial to a mesenchymal phenotype and, as such, may reduce the metastatic potential of the tumor cells. PRP also promotes the acquisition of a less malignant phenotype, in addition to a decrease in proliferation due to lineage (i.e., direct descent) specific cellular differentiation.

 

Selectivity

 

PRP treatment affects the TGFβ pathway, a significant tumor promoter in late-stage cancer. The likely molecular targets are proteinase-activated-receptors (PARs) type 1 and 2, which are over frequently overexpressed in many types of cancers. Trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen are activated by proteases in the extracellular matrix of tumor cells. In turn, trypsin (activated trypsinogen) has a preference to activate PAR-2, whilst Chymotrypsin (activated chymotrypsinogen) mainly activates PAR-1.

 

Effects Against Cancer Stem Cells

 

Cancer Stem Cells are resistant to standard treatments because they remain dormant for long periods, then migrate to other organs, and trigger explosive tumor growth, causing the patient to relapse. Approximately eighty percent of cancers are from solid tumors and metastasis is the main cause of patient death. Our unique patented approach is designed to target and eradicate cancer stem cells not killed by radiation or chemotherapy.

 

PRP is designed to target and eradicate cancer stem cells not killed by radiation or chemotherapy. Traditional cancer therapies act on tumor replicating cells, but not cancer stem cells, so they can rebuild the tumor mass and can migrate to start a new tumor in another organ. PRP stops cancer stem cells so that a tumor loses the ability to generate new cells and therefore the tumor disappears with no option to form a metastatic tumor elsewhere.

 

PRP treatment regulates up to four relevant pathways related to cancer spread and metastasis of cancer stem cells. PRP acts on TGFβ, Hippo, Wnt and Notch pathways. It promotes the up-regulation of RAC1b which avoids the hyper-activation of the p38 pathway induced by the TGFβ pathway, leading to the phosphorylation of YAP, which sequesters B-catenin in the cytoplasm, blocking the canonical Wnt pathway and inhibiting the Notch pathway. That cascade of reactions implies the disruption of the cancer stem cell phenotype and the reversal of the malignant epithelial to mesenchymal transition process that leads to tumor invasion.

 

PRP Impairs Niche Formation and Tumor Initiation

 

The proenzyme treatment inhibits the expression of genes related to the cancer stem cell phenotype, changing these malignant cells toward a more differentiated and less dangerous cellular condition. PRP interferes with the signals that the primary tumor sends to other tissues to prepare the pre-metastatic niche. Several assays, in vitro and in vivo studies confirm that PRP exerts an anti-tumor effect and acts selectively against all malignant, or tumor elements without affecting the non-tumor microenvironment and preventing its malignification.

 

In Vivo Efficacy of PRP In Pancreatic and Ovarian Tumors

 

The effect of the pro-enzyme formulation PRP at different doses on tumor weight in orthotopically implanted pancreatic and ovary tumors was evaluated. In the pancreatic tumor model, there was significant (*P < 0.05) reduction in mean tumor weight in animals treated for 26 days with trypsinogen/chymotrypsinogen at 83.3/500 mg/kg (30.2 mg; 85.9% inhibition) compared with control (PBS; 214.8 mg). Furthermore, ovary tumor-bearing mice showed a significant (*P < 0.05) reduction in mean tumor weight in animals treated for 21 days with two different doses of trypsinogen/chymotrypsinogen, 9.1/54 mg/kg and 27.5/165 mg/kg, compared with control (PBS). The mean weight of control group tumors was 2062.2 mg while the treated groups presented a mean tumor weight of 1074.2 mg and 957.3 respectively, ranging in a 50% tumor inhibition (52–46%).

 

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Overview Of Clinical Studies

 

The clinical efficacy of a suppository formulation containing bovine pancreatic pro-enzymes trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen was evaluated in the context of a UK Pharmaceuticals Special Scheme and the results were published in a peer-reviewed journal, Scientific Reports. Clinical effects were studied in 46 patients with advanced metastatic cancers of different origin (prostate, breast, ovarian, pancreatic, colorectal, stomach, non-small cell lung, bowel cancer and melanoma) after treatment with a rectal formulation of both pancreatic pro-enzymes.

 

No severe or serious adverse events related to the rectal administration were observed. Patients did not experience any hematological side effects as typically seen with classical chemotherapy regimens. No allergic reactions after rectal administration of suppositories were observed.

 

In order to assess the therapeutic activity of rectal administration, overall survival of patients under treatment was compared to the life expectancy assigned to a patient prior to treatment start. Nineteen from 46 patients (41.3%) with advanced malignant diseases, most of them suffering from metastases, had a survival time significantly longer than expected; in fact, for the whole set of cancer types, mean survival (9.0 months) was significantly higher than mean life expectation (5.6 months). Although the number of patients per cancer indication is naturally quite low, three out of eight patients with prostate cancer and five out of 11 patients with gastrointestinal cancers appear to particularly benefit from the treatment with the proenzyme suppositories.

 

PRP proves to be an in vivo effective and non-toxic anti-tumor treatment, able to inhibit angiogenesis and tumor growth, cancer cell migration and invasiveness. Furthermore, a suppository formulation containing both pancreatic proenzymes increased the life expectancy of advanced cancer patients. Consequently, PRP could have relevant oncological clinical applications for the treatment of solid tumors like advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma and advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

 

Cancer Type  

Life Expectation

(months)

 

Survival *

(months)

Pancreatic carcinoma (n = 4)   2   8
  4   *
  <3   7
  <3   4
Ovarian Cancer (n = 7)   4   11
  6   12
  6   11
  <12   38
  <1   1
  4   *
  3   *
Breast Cancer (n = 6)   6   9
  6   *
  2   *
  12   *
  <12   *
  12   *
Colon Rectal Cancer (n = 5)   6   *
  6   *
  12   *
  6   40
  12   *
Gastric Cancer (n = 2)   2   8
  <3   7
Prostate Cancer (n = 8)   4   *
  1   5
  4   *
  <12   *
  12   14
  12   *
  12   *
  12   *
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (n = 1)   2   9
Mesothelioma (n = 1)   3   9
Melanoma (n = 2)   6   *
  <3   4
Neuro-endocrine Tumor (n = 1)   10   24
Bladder (n = 2)   <3   *
  12   *
NSCLS (n = 2)   3   5
  6   *
Bowel (n = 2)   <12   *
  <3   3
Small Cell Carcinoma (n = 1)   <12   *
Renal Cancer (n = 1)   <3   *
Abdomen unknown primary (n = 1)   <12   *

 

Overview of clinical studies. Patients who met prognosis of life expectation (*). For the whole set of cancer types, mean survival (9.0 months) was statistically significantly higher than mean life expectation (5.6 months). One way ANOVA (α = 0.05, P < 0.05).

 

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POP1 JOINT RESEARCH AND DRUG DISCOVERY PROGRAM

 

The POP1 Joint Research and Drug Discovery Program is designed to produce a backup clinical compound to PRP, which is targeting metastatic cancer from solid tumors. According to Emergen Research, the global metastatic cancer market is projected to reach $111 Billion by 2027.

 

To date, recombinant trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen were synthesized and purified in the laboratory. In the case of trypsinogen, the initial success of producing trypsinogen synthetically has advanced to the stage where optimization of protein production is underway. Whereas purification and yield of chymotrypsinogen is currently the focus of research.

 

A synthetic version of trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen could have additional benefits to the global healthcare system that could further capitalize on the new therapeutic approach to treating cancer that the Company’s lead product candidate PRP offers cancer sufferers. For example, both proenzymes synthesized by an in vivo (living organism) system to produce crystalized proteins that could be maintained for long periods without suffering degradation, even in the absence of refrigeration. This will be particularly useful for a longer shelf life as well as global distribution of the drug product, particularly in warmer climates and developing regions where refrigeration may not be available. The program’s joint researchers at the Universities of Jaén and Granada are currently collaborating with the Institute of Microbiology and Microbial Biotechnology, at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria, Europe, and are working towards full scale manufacture of a synthetic recombinant formulation to PRP.

 

PRP TARGET INDICATIONS

 

The management of cancer differs widely, with a multitude of factors impacting the choice of treatment strategy. Some of those factors include:

 

  the type of tumor, usually defined by the tissue in the body from which it originated;
  the extent to which it has spread beyond its original location;
  the availability of treatments, driven by multiple factors including cost, drugs approved, local availability of suitable facilities, etc.;
  regional and geographic differences;
  whether the primary tumor is amenable to surgery, either as a potentially curative procedure, or as a palliative one; and
  the balance between potential risks and potential benefits from the various treatments and, probably most importantly, the patient’s wishes.

 

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For many patients with solid cancers, such as breast, ovarian, colorectal, lung and pancreatic cancer, surgery is frequently the first treatment option, often followed by first-line chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. While the hope is that such procedures are curative, in many instances the tumor returns, and second-line treatment strategies are chosen in an effort to achieve a degree of control over the tumor. In most instances, the benefit is temporary, and eventually the point is reached where the patient’s tumor either fails to respond to treatment adequately, or the treatment has unacceptable toxicity that severely limits its usefulness.

 

Should the planned Phase I, II and III clinical trials confirm the efficacy of PRP, along with the favorable safety and tolerability profile suggested by pre-clinical studies conducted to date, we believe our product will have utility in a number of clinical situations including:

 

  1. In the early-stage management of solid tumors, most likely as part of a multi-pronged treatment strategy in combination with existing therapeutic interventions;
  2. As a product that can be administered long term for patients following standard treatment approaches, such as surgery, or chemotherapy, in order to prevent or delay recurrence; and
  3. As a preventative measure for patients at risk of developing cancer based on genetic screening.

 

In the near term as part of our planned Phase I, II and III clinical trials, we plan to target patients with solid tumors, most likely ovarian and pancreatic, for whom other treatment options have been exhausted. This is a common approach by which most new drugs for cancer are initially tested. Once efficacy and safety have been demonstrated in this patient population, exploration of the potential utility of the drug in earlier stage disease can be undertaken, together with investigation of the drug’s utility in other types of cancers, such as gastro-esophageal tumors, colon or rectal carcinoma might be conducted. A Phase II study in a back-up indication, such as advanced therapy refractant prostate cancer will also be considered. This indication is based on positive preclinical pharmacology studies.

 

Pancreatic Cancer

 

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies with a median survival of less than six months and a five-year survival rate of less than 5%. The lethal nature of this disease stems from its propensity rapidly to disseminate to the lymphatic system and distant organs. This aggressive biology and resistance to conventional and targeted therapeutic agents leads to a typical clinical presentation of incurable disease at the time of diagnosis.

 

Pancreatic cancer has claimed notoriety over the last decades by proving to be one of the most recalcitrant solid tumors. As an indicator of its lethality, pancreatic cancer accounts for less than 3% of new cancers diagnosed annually in developed countries; yet, it is the third leading cause of cancer related mortality.

 

Since pancreatic cancer is an essentially fatal condition, disease duration is roughly equivalent with survival time. The median time of survival of patients with pancreatic cancer depends on the extend of disease at the time of diagnosis and ranges from 11 to 20 months for patients who qualified for surgical resection (Stage I/II), to 6-11 months for patients with locally advanced disease (Stage III), and only two to six months for patients with metastatic disease (Stage IV) (Amikura 1995, Richter 2003). Taking these low survival times into consideration, the yearly incidence rates for pancreatic cancer are considered the more relevant measure for this disease.

 

Each year the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths that will occur in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival. Incidence data are collected by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR). In 2020, it was estimated that a total of more than 1,806,590 new cancer cases and more than 606,520 cancer deaths occurred in the United States according to the National Cancer Institute. Amongst these, a total of almost 50,000 new cases of pancreatic cancer (3.2% of new cancer cases) were estimated, which resulted in more than 40,000 deaths (8.2%t of cancer deaths). This means only 20% survival rate of patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer.

 

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Ovarian Cancer

 

Ovarian cancer is a generic term that can be used for any cancer involving the ovaries, arising from one of the several different cell types of ovaries, including germ cells, specialized gonadal stromal cells and epithelial cells. Epithelial ovarian cancer accounts for 90% of ovarian cancers and is responsible for most ovarian cancer related deaths. Furthermore, several subtypes of ovarian cancer have been described according to different risk factors, different genetic mutations, different biological behaviors and different prognoses. This heterogeneity of the disease has impeded progress in the prevention, early detection, treatment and management of ovarian cancer.

 

In 2020, ovarian cancer is the eighth most diagnosed cancer among women in the world and accounts for an estimated 313,959 new cases and 207,252 deaths worldwide (World Cancer Research Fund International)., In the USA, 19,880 new cases (2015 – 2019) and 12,810 related deaths (2016 – 2020) are estimated to occur (National Cancer Institute). The disease typically presents at late stage when the five-year relative survival rate is only 29%. Few cases (15%) are diagnosed with localized tumor (stage 1), when the five-year survival rate is 92%. Strikingly, the overall five-year relative survival rate generally ranges between 30% to 40% across the globe and has seen only very modest increases since 1995.

 

PRP DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

 

Our goal is to undertake early-stage clinical development of PRP through to a significant value inflection point, where the commercial attractiveness of a drug in development, together with a greater likelihood of achieving market authorization, may attract potential interest from licensees seeking to acquire new products. Such value inflection points in the context of cancer drugs are typically at the point where formal, controlled clinical trials have demonstrated either ‘efficacy’ or ‘proof of concept’ – typically meaning that there is controlled clinical trial evidence that the drug is effective in the proposed target patient population, has an acceptable safety profile, and is suitable for further development. From a ‘big picture’ perspective, it is our intention to progress the development of our technology through the completion of our planned Phase IIa clinical trials and then to seek a licensee for further development beyond that point.

 

As part of that commercial strategy, we will:

 

  continue research and development to build our existing intellectual property portfolio, and to seek new, patentable discoveries;
  seek to ensure all product development is undertaken in a manner that makes its products approvable in the major pharmaceutical markets, including the U.S., Europe, the UK, Australia and Japan;
  aggressively pursue the protection of our technology through all means possible, including patents in all major jurisdictions, and potentially trade secrets; and
  make strategic acquisitions to acquire new companies that have intellectual property or products that complement our future goals.

 

PRP DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND MILESTONES

 

We plan to progress PRP down a conventional early-stage clinical development pathway for:

 

  regulatory and/or ethics approval to conduct a Phase Ib study; and
  Phase IIa multiple escalating dose studies to investigate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of PRP administered intravenously to patients.

 

Preclinical development has been completed, including pharmacology and safety toxicology studies, process development activities and bioanalytical method development. The full-scale GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) finished product manufacture of PRP will be completed in preparation for the FIH Phase Ib study. Validation of the bioanalytical method will also be completed prior to lodging our first clinical trial application (CTA) which we plan to undertake at the Peter Mac Cancer Center in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia’s biggest cancer hospital. Propanc Biopharma is collaborating with contract research organizations, manufacturing partners and consultants to complete activities prior to preparing the CTA for the Phase Ib study.

 

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The Company has received expressions of interest to evaluate proenzyme therapy as a method to prevent recurrence and metastasis of solid tumors in pancreatic and ovarian cancers. The letters of interest were confirmed by medical oncologists specializing in pancreatic and ovarian cancers, from the University Hospital of Jaén, in Granada, Spain. The evaluation will most likely be conducted as separate Phase IIa proof of concept (POC), multi-trial center studies for each target indication. The expressions of interest were confirmed after their evaluation of Propanc’s scientific literature supporting the use of proenzymes in pancreatic and ovarian cancers. The Phase IIa POC studies will be conducted after the Phase Ib dose escalation study investigating the tolerability and activity of proenzyme therapy in patients with advanced solid tumors is completed at the Peter Mac Cancer Center.

 

In Australia, we receive up to 43.5% “cash-back” benefit in the form of a refund of our qualified research and, development costs and expenses. We received a refund of $75,800 AUD ($54,977 USD) and $151,767 AUD ($113,415 USD) for the years ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively. We are continuing to evaluate all options to conduct our planned clinical trials in the most cost-efficient manner, while striving to minimize dilution to our stockholders.

 

We anticipate reaching the Phase IIa proof of concept milestone in approximately three to four years, subject to regulatory approval in Europe, and the results from our research and development and licensing activities.

 

Our overhead and expenses are likely to increase from its current level as PRP progresses down the development pathway. This increase will be driven by the need to increase our internal resources in order to effectively manage our research and development activities.

 

Anticipated timelines

 

In second quarter of the 2023 calendar year, we anticipate the submission of the Clinical Trial Application for PRP. We anticipate receiving approval of such application in the first half of 2023. Following the clinical trial application, we plan to commence our Study Preparation, including CRO Selection and Contracts, Analytical Lab Selection Contracts and Trial Sites Selection and Contracts. In connection with the Clinical Trial Application, this product will be part of our Investigation Medicinal Product Dossier, Study Protocol and Investigator’s Brochure. In the second half of 2023 calendar year, we hope to complete the Study Preparation together with the Preparation of Logistics and Trial Sites Initiation Visits and complete our clinical trial application review. Commencing in the second half of 2023 calendar year, we intend to initiate a Phase Ib study in advanced cancer patients with solid tumors and the anticipated costs will be approximately $6.5 million. We will need to raise additional financing to fund our planned Phase I, II and III clinical trials and for working capital.

 

Research Activity   Timeline
Clinical Trial Application (CTA)   Nov ‘22 – Apr ‘23
Investigational Medicinal Product Dossier    
Phase Ib Clinical Study Protocol    
Investigator’s Brochure    
CTA Compilation   Mar – May ‘23
CTA submission   May ‘23
CTA Approval   Jun ‘23
CTA Review   June ‘23 – Jul ‘23
Contract Research Organization & Contracts   Jan – May ‘23
Analytical Laboratory Selection & Contracts    
Trial Site Selection & Contracts    
Preparation of Logistics   May – Sep ‘23
Trial Site Initiation Visits    
First Patient/First Visit   Sep ‘23

 

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POP1 JOINT RESEARCH AND DRUG DISCOVERY PROGRAM

 

As outlined previously, a joint research and drug discovery program has been established with our collaborators at the Universities of Jaén and Granada to investigate the changes in genetic and protein expression that occur in cancer cells as a consequence of being exposed to our proenzyme formulation. The objective of this work is to understand at the molecular level the targets of our proenzyme formulation, thereby providing the opportunity for new, patentable drugs which can be developed further. We plan to commence a targeted drug discovery program utilizing the identified molecular target to search for novel anticancer agents.

 

The POP1 joint research and drug discovery program has produced synthetic recombinant versions of the two proenzymes, trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen. Propanc Biopharma’s joint scientific researchers are developing a novel expression system and are also in the process of optimizing conditions to achieve high titers of recombinant trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen. Further, the anticancer effects of the synthetic versions will be tested against the naturally derived proenzymes from bovine origin.

 

FINANCIAL OBJECTIVES

 

Multiple factors, many of which are outside of our control, can impact our ability to achieve our target objectives within the planned time and budgetary constraints. Subject to these caveats, our objective is to complete our planned Phase IIa study for PRP within the proposed budget.

 

We primarily outsource services, skills and expertise to third parties as required to achieve our scientific and corporate objectives. As the business grows and gains more personnel, outsourcing will continue to be the preferred model, where fixed and variable costs are carefully managed on a project-by-project basis. This means our research and development activities are carried out by third parties. Additional third parties with specific expertise in research, compound screening and manufacturing (including raw material suppliers) have been contracted as required.

 

CORPORATE STRATEGY

 

Our initial focus is to organize, coordinate and finance the various parts of our drug development pipeline. New personnel will be carefully introduced into our Company over a period of time as our research and development activities expand. They will have specific expertise in product development, manufacture and formulation, regulatory affairs, toxicology, clinical operations and business development (including intellectual property management, licensing and other corporate activities). In the first instance, additional clinical management and development expertise is likely to be required for our lead product. Therefore, we anticipate an increase in employees in order to effectively manage our contractors as the projects progress down the development pathway.

 

This outsourcing strategy is common in the biotechnology sector and is an efficient way to obtain access to the necessary skills required to progress a project, in particular as the required skills change as the project progresses from discovery, through manufacturing and non-clinical development and into clinical trials. We anticipate that we will continue to use this model, thereby retaining the flexibility to contract in the appropriate resource as and when required.

 

We intend to seek and identify potential licensing partners for our product candidates as they progress through the various development stages, reaching certain milestones and value inflection points. If a suitable licensee is identified, a potential licensing deal could consist of payments for certain milestones, plus royalties from future sales if the product is able to receive approval from the relevant regulatory authorities where future product sales are targeted. We intend to seek and identify potential licensees based on the initial efficacy data from Phase II clinical trials. To accomplish this objective, we have commenced discussions with potential partners in our current preclinical phase of development.

 

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As part of our overall expansion strategy, from time to time, we investigate potential intellectual property acquisition opportunities to expand our product portfolio. While our initial focus is on the development of PRP as the lead product candidate, potential product candidates may also be considered for future preclinical and clinical development. These potential opportunities have arisen from other research and development organizations, which either own existing intellectual property or are currently developing new intellectual property, which may be of interest to us. These opportunities are possible new cancer treatments that are potentially less toxic than existing treatment approaches and are able to fill an existing gap in the treatment process, such as a systemic de-bulking method which could reduce the size and threat of metastases to a more manageable level for late-stage cancer patients.

 

We believe these potential treatment approaches will be complementary to existing treatment regimens and our existing product candidate, PRP. No formal approaches have been made at this stage and it is unknown whether we will engage in this discussion in the near future. However, as PRP progresses further down the development pathway, we intend to assess future opportunities that may arise to use the expertise of our management and scientific personnel for future prospective research and development projects.

 

CURRENT OPERATIONS

 

We are at a pre-revenue stage. We do not know when, if ever, we will be able to commercialize our products and to begin to generate revenue. We are focusing our efforts on organizing, coordinating and financing the various aspects of the drug research and development program outlined earlier in this document. In order to commercialize our products, we must complete preclinical development, Phase Ib, IIa and IIb clinical trials in Europe, the U.S., United Kingdom, Australia or elsewhere, and satisfy the applicable regulatory authority that PRP is safe and effective. If the results from the Phase II trials are convincing, we will seek conditional approval from the regulatory authorities sooner. Therefore, from the time we commence clinical trials, we estimate that this will take approximately three to four years if we seek conditional approval upon completion of Phase II trials. As described previously, when we advance our development projects sufficiently down the development pathway and achieve a major increase in value, such as obtaining interim efficacy data from Phase II clinical trials, we will seek a suitable licensing partner to complete the remaining development activities, obtain regulatory approval and market the product.

 

CURRENT THERAPIES

 

We are developing a therapeutic solution for the treatment of patients with advanced stages of cancer targeting solid tumors, which is cancer that originates in organs or tissues other than bone marrow or the lymph system. Common cancer types classified as solid tumors include lung, colorectal, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer and liver cancers. In each of these indications, there is a large market opportunity to capitalize on the limitations of current therapies.

 

Current therapeutic options for the treatment of cancer offer, at most, a few months of extra life or tumor stabilization. Some experts believe that drugs that kill most tumor cells do not affect cancer stem cells, which can regenerate the tumor (e.g., chemotherapy). Studies are revealing the genetic changes in cells that cause cancer and spur its growth. This research is providing scientific researchers with many potential targets for drugs. Tumor cells, however, can develop resistance to drugs.

 

Limitations of Current Therapies

 

PRP was developed because of the limitation of current cancer therapies. While surgery is often safe and effective for early-stage cancer, many standard therapies for late-stage cancer urgently need improvement; current treatments generally provide modest benefits, and frequently cause significant adverse effects. Our focus is to provide oncologists and their patients with therapies for metastatic cancer which are more effective than current therapies, and which have a substantially reduced side effect profile.

 

While progress has been made within the oncology sector in developing new treatments, the overall cancer death rate has only improved by seven percent over the last 30 years.

 

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Most of these new treatments have some limitations, such as:

 

  1. significant toxic effects;
  2. expense; and
  3. limited survival benefits.

 

We believe that our treatment will provide a competitive advantage over the following treatments:

 

  Chemotherapeutics: Side effects from chemotherapy can include pain, diarrhea, constipation, mouth sores, hair loss, nausea and vomiting, as well as blood-related side effects, which may include a low cell count of infection fighting white blood cells (neutropenia), low red blood cell count (anemia), and low platelet count (thrombocytopenia). Our goal is to demonstrate that our treatment will be more effective than chemotherapeutic and hormonal therapies with fewer side effects.
  Targeted therapies: The most common type is multi-targeted kinase inhibitors (molecules which inhibit a specific class of enzymes called kinases). Common side effects include fatigue, rash, hand-foot reaction, diarrhea, hypertension and dyspnea (shortness of breath). Further, tyrosine kinases inhibited by these drugs appear to develop resistance to inhibitors. While the clinical findings with PRP are early and subject to confirmation in future clinical trials, no evidence has yet been observed of the development of resistance by the cancer to PRP.
  Monoclonal antibodies: Development of monoclonal antibodies is often difficult due to safety concerns. Side effects that are most common include skin and gastro-intestinal toxicities. For example, several serious side effects from Avastin, an anti-angiogenic cancer drug, include gastrointestinal perforation and dehiscence (e.g., rupture of the bowel), severe hypertension (often requiring emergency treatment) and nephrotic syndrome (protein leakage into the urine). Antibody therapy can be applied to various cancer types, but can also be limited to certain genetic sub-populations in many instances.
  Immunotherapy: There is a long history of attempts to develop therapeutic cancer vaccines to stimulate the body’s own immune system to attack cancer cells. While these products generally do not have the poor safety profile of standard therapeutic approaches, only a small number of them are FDA-approved and available compared to the number of patients diagnosed with cancer. Furthermore, only a relatively small number of the patient population is eligible to receive and subsequently respond to treatment, as defined by preventing tumor growth.

 

MARKET OPPORTUNITY

 

The global metastatic cancer treatment market is predicted to reach $111 Billion by 2027 by Emergen Research. Demand for new cancer products can largely be attributed to a combination of a rapidly aging population in western countries and changing environmental factors, which together are resulting in rising cancer incidence rates. Worldwide, the World Health Organization estimated 19.3 million new cancer cases and almost 10.0 million cancer deaths occurred in 2020. As such, global demand for new cancer treatments which are effective, safe and easy to administer is rapidly increasing. Our treatment will potentially target many aggressive tumor types for which little or few treatment options exist.

 

We plan to target patients with solid tumors, most likely pancreatic and ovarian tumors, for whom other treatment options have been exhausted. Globally these cancers resulted in over 673,255 deaths combined in 2020, according to the World Health Organization. With such a high mortality rate, a substantial unmet medical need exists for new treatments. Once the efficacy and safety of PRP has been demonstrated in late-stage patient populations, we plan to undertake exploration of the utility of the drug in earlier stage disease, together with investigation of the drug’s utility in other types of cancer.

 

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Anticipated Market Potential

 

It is difficult to estimate the size of the market opportunity for this specific type of product as a clinically proven, pro-enzyme formulated suppository marketed to oncologists across global territories for specific cancer indications, to the best of management’s knowledge, has not been previously available. However, the markets for potential market for pancreatic and ovarian cancers may be characterized as follows:

 

  The world market for pancreatic cancer drugs is projected to grow to $4.2 billion by the year 2025, according to Grandview Research. Major players operating in the pancreatic cancer therapy market include Eli Lilly and Company, Roche Holding AG, Celgene Corporation, Amgen Inc., Novartis AG, Pharmacyte Biotech Inc., Clovis Oncology, Inc., Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Pfizer Inc., Merck & Co., Inc., among others. For instance, in May 2018, Eli Lilly and Company acquired AMRO BioSciences, Inc., which is engaged into number of drugs for cancer. developments performed by the companies are helping the market to grow in the coming years.

 

  The global market for ovarian cancer drugs expected to reach $10.1 billion by 2027, according to iHealthcareAnalyst. This will be driven by continued uptake and expected launches of the approved PARP (poly adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase) inhibitors. Major competitors operating in the global ovarian cancer treatment market include AbbVie Inc., AstraZeneca PLC (Acerta Pharma), Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., GSK plc (formerly, GlaxoSmithKline plc (Tesaro)), Gradalis, Inc., Incyte Corporation, MacroGenics, Inc., Oncotelic Therapeutics, Inc. (formerly, Mateon Therapeutics, Inc.), Merck & Co., Inc., Novartis AG, Kazia Therapeutics Limited (formerly, Novogen Limited), Vivesto AB (formerly, Oasmia Pharmaceutical AB), Pfizer Inc., Pharma Mar S.A., and Roche Holding AG.

 

New products can be defined as addition-in-class, advance-in-class, or first-in-class, depending on their degree of innovation. Addition-in-class products, defined as new Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) with established mechanisms of action, are often clinically important and highly commercially successful. Advance-in-class product innovation, defined as significantly differentiated and innovative new APIs, albeit with established mechanisms of action, remains a highly attractive strategy. However, first-in-class innovation, defined as products with a molecular target and/or mechanism of action not found in any approved products globally, remains the key product development strategy in terms of providing the greatest degree of differentiation, extending to a first-mover advantage and potentially the capture of significant market share.

 

Based on the current situation for these two markets, we believe there is an attractive opportunity in both the pancreatic and ovarian cancer market sectors for the introduction of a first-in-class, clinically proven product which can achieve new benefits for patients in terms of survival and quality of life. The current concentration of products suggests oncologists may be willing to try newly approved products, particularly if they can exhibit a favorable safety profile, although substantive R&D activities will be necessary to both obtain regulatory approval, and to generate the clinical safety and efficacy data needed to convince clinicians to use a new product.

 

LICENSE AGREEMENTS

 

University of Bath

 

We previously sponsored a collaborative research project at University of Bath to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the potential clinical approach of our proprietary proenzyme formulation. As a result of this undertaking, we entered into a Commercialization Agreement with University of Bath (UK), dated November 12, 2009 (the “Commercialization Agreement”), where, initially, we held an exclusive license with Bath University, and where we and University of Bath co-owned the intellectual property relating to our proenzyme formulations. The Commercialization Agreement originally provided for University of Bath to assign the Patents (as defined therein) to Propanc in certain specified circumstances, such as successful completion of a clinical trial and commencement of a Phase II (Proof of Concept) clinical trial.

 

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On June 14, 2012, Propanc and University of Bath agreed to an earlier assignment to us of the patents pursuant to an Assignment and Amendment Deed, on the provision that University of Bath retains certain rights arising from the Commercialization Agreement, as follows:

 

  University of Bath reserves for itself (and its employees and students and permitted academic sub-licensees with respect to research use) the non-exclusive, irrevocable, worldwide, royalty free right to use the patents for research use;
  The publication rights of University of Bath specified in the contract relating to the original research made between the parties with an effective date of July 18, 2008 shall continue in force;
  Propanc shall pay to University of Bath a royalty of two percent of any and all net revenues;
  Propanc shall use all reasonable endeavors to develop and commercially exploit the patents for the mutual benefit of University of Bath and Propanc to the maximum extent throughout the covered territory and in any additional territory and to obtain, maintain and/or renew any licenses or authorizations that are necessary to enable such development and commercial exploitation. Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, Propanc shall comply with all relevant regulatory requirements in respect of its sponsoring and/or performing clinical trials in humans involving the administration of a product or materials within a claim of the patents; and
  Propanc shall take out with a reputable insurance company and maintain liability insurance coverage prior to the first human trials.

 

In consideration of such assignment, we agreed to pay royalties of two percent of net revenues to University of Bath. Additionally, we agreed to pay five percent of each and every license agreement subscribed for. The contract is cancellable at any time by either party. To date, no amounts are owed under the agreement.

 

University of Jaén

 

We have established a collaboration with the University of Jaén to carry out a Research Project aimed at the synthetic development of PRP and its subsequent validation. The University of Jaén is providing scientific research activities the Department of Health Sciences, which provides the necessary technical and human resources in order to carry out the programmed works. A Collaboration Agreement (the “Collaboration Agreement”) according was established, dated October 1, 2020, with the main objective for the synthetic development of PRP and its subsequent validation. To that end, there shall be established a pre-clinical protocol of safety evaluation and antitumor efficacy on cancer stem cells and in orthotopic xenotransplantations derived from cancer stem cells isolated from tumor cell lines, of a newly developed synthetic formulation based on the two pancreatic zymogens.

 

The ownership of potential intellectual property rights that may arise as a result of the knowledge obtained through the project will belong to Propanc. In consideration for payment of the compensation, the University of Jaén hereby assigns and agrees to do all things reasonably required to assign to the contracting entity all industrial property rights arising from the Project.

 

In return for ownership of the entire right and title in all industrial property rights arising from the Project, Propanc agrees to pay the University of Jaén two percent of the net sales of any products sold by the contracting entity which fall within the scope of the protection of such industrial property rights.

 

A second collaborative research project is underway with the Universities of Jaén and Granada investigating the effect of pancreatic proenzymes against the tumor microenvironment and premetastatic niche. The specific tasks developed under this collaboration focuses on the effects of PRP on cancer associated fibroblasts within the tumor microenvironment. Consistent with existing rights, Propanc will own any intellectual property developed. The personnel of the investigation team of the University of Jaén and Granada whose work has contributed to the creation of knowledge that give rise to industrial property rights should be listed as inventors. Further, Professors Macarena Perán from the University of Jaén and Marchal from the University of Granada should receive one percent of the net revenue to Propanc Biopharma from sales of any products sold by the contracting entity, or on behalf of the contracting entity, which fall within the scope of protection of such industrial property rights. The commencement date for the experiments is September 1, 2022, and the estimated length of time for completion is 24 months.

 

Future Agreements

 

We continue to learn the properties of proenzymes with the long-term aim of screening new compounds for development. We anticipate engaging in future discussions with several technology companies who are progressing new developments in the oncology field as potential additions to our product line. Initially targeting the oncology sector, our focus is to identify and develop novel treatments that are highly effective targeted therapies, with few side effects as a result of toxicity to healthy cells.

 

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INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

 

The Company has filed multiple patent applications relating to its lead product, PRP. The Company’s lead patent application has been granted and remains in force in the United States, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Turkey, United Kingdom, Australia, China, Japan, Indonesia, Israel, New Zealand, Singapore, Malaysia, South Africa, Mexico, Republic of Korea, India and Brazil. In Canada, the patent application remains under examination.

 

In 2016 and early 2017, we filed other patent applications. Three applications were filed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (the “PCT”). The PCT assists applicants in seeking patent protection by filing one international patent application under the PCT; thus, applicants can simultaneously seek protection for an invention in over 150 countries. Once filed, the application is placed under the control of the national or regional patent offices, as applicable, in what is called the national phase. One of the PCT applications filed in November 2016, entered national phase in July 2018 and another PCT application entered national phase in August 2018. A third PCT application entered national phase in October 2018.

 

Presently, there are 43 granted, allowed, or accepted patents and 22 patent applications filed, or under examination in key global jurisdictions relating to the use of proenzymes against solid tumors, covering the lead product candidate PRP.

 

Further patent applications are expected to be filed to capture and protect additional patentable subject matter based on the Company’s field of technology relating to pharmaceutical compositions of proenzymes for treating cancer.

 

REGULATORY MATTERS

 

United States

 

Government oversight of the pharmaceutical industry is usually classified into pre-approval and post-approval categories. Most of the therapeutically significant innovative products marketed today are the subject of New Drug Applications (“NDA”). Preapproval activities, based on these detailed applications, are used to assure the product is safe and effective before marketing. In the United States, The Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (“CDER”), is the FDA organization responsible for over-the- counter and prescription drugs, including most biological therapeutics, and generic drugs.

 

Before approval, the FDA may inspect and audit the development facilities, planned production facilities, clinical trials, institutional review boards and laboratory facilities in which the product was tested in animals. After the product is approved and marketed, the FDA uses different mechanisms for assuring that firms adhere to the terms and conditions of approval described in the application and that the product is manufactured in a consistent and controlled manner. This is done by periodic unannounced inspections of production and quality control facilities by FDA’s field investigators and analysts.

 

Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and Public Health Service Act

 

Prescription drug and biologic products are subject to extensive pre- and post-market regulation by the FDA, including regulations that govern the testing, manufacturing, safety, efficacy, labelling, storage, record keeping, advertising and promotion of such products under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, the Public Health Service Act, and their implementing regulations. The process of obtaining FDA approval and achieving and maintaining compliance with applicable laws and regulations requires the expenditure of substantial time and financial resources. Failure to comply with applicable FDA or other requirements may result in refusal to approve pending applications, a clinical hold, warning letters, civil or criminal penalties, recall or seizure of products, partial or total suspension of production or withdrawal of the product from the market. FDA approval is required before any new drug or biologic, including a new use of a previously approved drug, can be marketed in the United States. All applications for FDA approval must contain, among other things, information relating to safety and efficacy, stability, manufacturing, processing, packaging, labelling and quality control.

 

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New Drug Applications (“NDAs”)

 

The FDA’s NDA approval process generally involves:

 

  Completion of preclinical laboratory and animal testing in compliance with the FDA’s good laboratory practice, or GLP, regulations;
  Submission to the FDA of an investigational new drug (“IND”) application for human clinical testing, which must become effective before human clinical trials may begin in the United States;
  Performance of adequate and well-controlled human clinical trials to establish the safety, purity and potency of the proposed product for each intended use;
  Satisfactory completion of an FDA pre-approval inspection of the facility or facilities at which the product is manufactured to assess compliance with the FDA’s “current good manufacturing practice” (“CGMP”) regulations; and
  Submission to and approval by the FDA of an NDA.

 

The preclinical and clinical testing and approval process requires substantial time, effort and financial resources, and we cannot guarantee that any approvals for our product candidates will be granted on a timely basis, if at all. Preclinical tests include laboratory evaluation of toxicity and immunogenicity in animals. The results of preclinical tests, together with manufacturing information and analytical data, are submitted as part of an IND application to the FDA. The IND automatically becomes effective 30 days after receipt by the FDA, unless the FDA raises concerns or questions about the conduct of the clinical trial, including concerns that human research subjects will be exposed to unreasonable health risks. In such a case, the IND sponsor and the FDA must resolve any outstanding concerns before clinical trials can begin. Our submission of an IND may not result in FDA authorization to commence clinical trials. A separate submission to an existing IND must also be made for each successive clinical trial conducted during product development. Further, an independent institutional review board (“IRB”) covering each medical center proposing to conduct clinical trials must review and approve the plan for any clinical trial before it commences at that center and it must monitor the study until completed. The FDA, the IRB or the sponsor may suspend a clinical trial at any time on various grounds, including a finding that the subjects or patients are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk. Clinical testing also must satisfy extensive “good clinical practice” (“GCP”) regulations, which include requirements that all research subjects provide informed consent and that all clinical studies be conducted under the supervision of one or more qualified investigators.

 

For purposes of an NDA submission and approval, human clinical trials are typically conducted in the following sequential phases, which may overlap:

 

  Phase I: Initially conducted in a limited population to test the product candidate for safety and dose tolerance;
  Phase II: Generally conducted in a limited patient population to identify possible adverse effects and safety risks, to determine the initial efficacy of the product for specific targeted indications and to determine optimal dosage. A Phase IIa trial is a non-pivotal, exploratory study that assesses biological activity as its primary endpoint. A Phase IIb trial is designed as a definite dose finding study with efficacy as the primary endpoint. Multiple Phase II clinical trials may be conducted by the sponsor to obtain information prior to beginning larger and more extensive Phase III clinical trials;
  Phase III: Commonly referred to as pivotal studies. When Phase II evaluations demonstrate that a dose range of the product is effective and has an acceptable safety profile, Phase III clinical trials are undertaken in large patient populations to further evaluate dosage, to provide substantial evidence of clinical efficacy and to further test for safety in an expanded and diverse patient population at multiple, geographically-dispersed clinical trial sites. Generally, replicate evidence of safety and effectiveness needs to be demonstrated in two adequate and well-controlled Phase III clinical trials of a product candidate for a specific indication. These studies are intended to establish the overall risk/benefit ratio of the product and provide adequate basis for product labelling; and
  Phase IV: In some cases, the FDA may condition approval of an NDA on the sponsor’s agreement to conduct additional clinical trials to further assess the product’s safety, purity and potency after NDA approval. Such post-approval trials are typically referred to as Phase IV clinical trials.

 

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Progress reports detailing the results of the clinical studies must be submitted at least annually to the FDA and safety reports must be submitted to the FDA and the investigators for serious and unexpected adverse events. Concurrent with clinical studies, sponsors usually complete additional animal studies and must also develop additional information about the product and finalize a process for manufacturing the product in commercial quantities in accordance with CGMP requirements. The manufacturing process must be capable of consistently producing quality batches of the product candidate and, among other things, the manufacturer must develop methods for testing the identity, strength, quality and purity of the final product. Moreover, appropriate packaging must be selected and tested and stability studies must be conducted to demonstrate that the product candidate does not undergo unacceptable deterioration over its shelf life.

 

The results of product development, preclinical studies and clinical trials, along with the aforementioned manufacturing information, are submitted to the FDA as part of an NDA. NDA’s must also contain extensive manufacturing information. Under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (“PDUFA”), the FDA agrees to specific goals for NDA review time through a two-tiered classification system, Standard Review and Priority Review. Standard Review is applied to products that offer at most, only minor improvement over existing marketed therapies. Standard Review NDAs have a goal of being completed within a ten-month timeframe, although a review can take significantly longer. A Priority Review designation is given to products that offer major advances in treatment, or provide a treatment where no adequate therapy exists. A Priority Review takes the FDA six months to review an NDA. It is likely that our product candidates will be granted Standard Reviews. The review process is often significantly extended by FDA requests for additional information or clarification. The FDA may refer the application to an advisory committee for review, evaluation and recommendation as to whether the application should be approved. The FDA is not bound by the recommendation of an advisory committee, but it generally follows such recommendations.

 

The FDA may deny approval of an NDA if the applicable regulatory criteria are not satisfied, or it may require additional clinical data or additional pivotal Phase III clinical trials. Even if such data is submitted, the FDA may ultimately decide that the NDA does not satisfy the criteria for approval. Data from clinical trials is not always conclusive and the FDA may interpret data differently than Propanc. Once issued, product approval may be withdrawn by the FDA if ongoing regulatory requirements are not met or if safety problems occur after the product reaches the market. In addition, the FDA may require testing, including Phase IV clinical trials, Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (“REMS”), and surveillance programs to monitor the effect of approved products that have been commercialized, and the FDA has the power to prevent or limit further marketing of a product based on the results of these post-marketing programs. Products may be marketed only for the approved indications and in accordance with the provisions of the approved label. Further, if there are any modifications to the drug, including changes in indications, labelling or manufacturing processes or facilities, approval of a new or supplemental NDA may be required, which may involve conducting additional preclinical studies and clinical trials.

 

Other U.S. Regulatory Requirements

 

After approval, products are subject to extensive continuing regulation by the FDA, which include company obligations to manufacture products in accordance with GMP, maintain and provide to the FDA updated safety and efficacy information, report adverse experiences with the product, keep certain records, submit periodic reports, obtain FDA approval of certain manufacturing or labeling changes and comply with FDA promotion and advertising requirements and restrictions. Failure to meet these obligations can result in various adverse consequences, both voluntary and FDA-imposed, including product recalls, withdrawal of approval, restrictions on marketing and the imposition of civil fines and criminal penalties. In addition, later discovery of previously unknown safety or efficacy issues may result in restrictions on the product, manufacturer or NDA holder.

 

Propanc, and any manufacturers of our products, are required to comply with applicable FDA manufacturing requirements contained in the FDA’s GMP regulations. GMP regulations require, among other things, quality control and quality assurance as well as the corresponding maintenance of records and documentation. The manufacturing facilities for our products must meet GMP requirements to the satisfaction of the FDA pursuant to a pre-approval inspection before Propanc can use them to manufacture products. Propanc and any third-party manufacturers are also subject to periodic inspections of facilities by the FDA and other authorities, including procedures and operations used in the testing and manufacture of our products to assess our compliance with applicable regulations.

 

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With respect to post-market product advertising and promotion, the FDA imposes complex regulations on entities that advertise and promote pharmaceuticals, which include, among others, standards for direct-to-consumer advertising, promoting products for uses or in patient populations that are not described in the product’s approved labeling (known as “off-label use”), industry-sponsored scientific and educational activities and promotional activities involving the Internet. Failure to comply with FDA requirements can have negative consequences, including adverse publicity, enforcement letters from the FDA, mandated corrective advertising or communications with doctors and civil or criminal penalties. Although physicians may prescribe legally available drugs for off-label uses, manufacturers may not market or promote such off-label uses.

 

Changes to some of the conditions established in an approved application, including changes in indications, labeling, or manufacturing processes or facilities, require submission and FDA approval of a new NDA or NDA supplement before the change can be implemented. An NDA supplement for a new indication typically requires clinical data similar to that in the original application, and the FDA uses the same procedures and actions in reviewing NDA supplements as it does in reviewing an NDA.

 

Adverse event reporting and submission of periodic reports is required following FDA approval of an NDA. The FDA also may require post-marketing testing, known as Phase IV testing, risk mitigation strategies and surveillance to monitor the effects of an approved product or to place conditions on an approval that could restrict the distribution or use of the product.

 

In June 2017, we were notified by the FDA that PRP had been granted orphan drug designation for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Orphan drug designation may be granted by the FDA when a rare disease or condition is implicated and a potential treatment qualifies under the Orphan Drug Act and applicable FDA regulations. This qualifies us for various developmental incentives, including protocol assistance, the potential for research grants, the waiver of future application fees, and tax credits for clinical testing if we choose to host future clinical trials in the United States.

 

In October 2017, we submitted a request for a second orphan drug designation for PRP, this time for ovarian cancer.

 

On November 2, 2017, we were notified by the FDA that our request was not granted. The Office of Orphan Products Development (“OOPD”) stated that complete prevalence is used as a measure of disease in ovarian cancer, as this reflects the number of women who have been diagnosed with disease and may be eligible for treatment with the proposed therapy. Therefore, on the date of the submission of our application, the OOPD estimated that the prevalence of ovarian cancer was 228,110 cases. Since the prevalence exceeds the threshold of 200,000 to qualify for orphan drug designation, they could not grant our request. We may consider resubmitting our application if we can identify a suitable sub-population in ovarian cancer, which may meet the target threshold.

 

European Union

 

In addition to regulations in the United States, we will be subject to a variety of foreign regulations governing clinical trials, commercial sales and distribution of our products. Whether or not we obtain FDA approval for a product, we must obtain approval of a product by the comparable regulatory authorities of foreign countries before we can commence clinical trials or market our product in those countries. The approval process varies from country to country and the time may differ than that required for FDA approval. The requirements governing the conduct of clinical trials, product licensing, pricing and reimbursement vary greatly from country to country. Despite these differences, the clinical trials will be conducted according to international standards such as Good Clinical Practice (GCP), Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and Good Laboratory Practice (GLP), which is recognized by each foreign country under the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) Guidelines. We will conduct our trials in each foreign jurisdiction according to these standards, undertaking a First-In-Human (FIH) Phase I study in patients with advanced solid tumors, evaluating the safety, pharmacokinetics, and anti-tumor efficacy of PRP. This will be followed by two Phase II studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of PRP. To ensure harmonization between the jurisdictions, we intend to conduct regulatory meetings in the country where trials are conducted, as well as the FDA and European Medicines Agency. A pre-IND (Investigational New Drug) meeting will be held with the FDA once initial patient data has been collected from the FIH study to ensure acceptability of future planned Phase II trials.

 

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Under European Union regulatory systems, we must submit and obtain authorization for a clinical trial application in each member state in which we intend to conduct a clinical trial. After we have completed clinical trials, we must obtain marketing authorization before it can market its product. We must submit applications for marketing authorizations for oncology products under a centralized procedure. The centralized procedure provides for the grant of a single marketing authorization that is valid for all European Union member states. The European Medicines Agency (the “EMA”) is the agency responsible for the scientific evaluation of medicines that are to be assessed via the centralized procedure.

 

On June 23, 2016, the UK government held a referendum to gauge voters’ support to remain or leave the European Union. The referendum resulted in 51.9% of UK voters in favor of leaving the European Union, commonly referred to as “Brexit.” On March 29, 2017, the UK invoked Article 50 of Lisbon Treaty to initiate complete withdrawal from the European Union, which was effectuated on January 31, 2020. The center for the EMA was based in London but the European Union has relocated the center to The Netherlands.

 

The impact of Brexit on the drug approval process in the UK is uncertain. Companies based in the UK and operating in the drug industry are urging the European Union and the UK to reach an agreement to harmonize the regulatory process.

 

Australia

 

In Australia, the relevant regulatory body responsible for the pharmaceutical industry is the Therapeutics Goods Administration (the “TGA”). Prescription medicines are regulated under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989. Under the Therapeutic Goods Act, the Therapeutic Goods Administration evaluates new products for quality, safety and efficacy before being approved for market authorization, according to similar standards employed by the FDA and EMA in the United States and European Union, respectively. However, receiving market authorization in one or two regions does not guarantee approval in another.

 

Third-Party Payor Coverage and Reimbursement

 

Although none of our product candidates has been commercialized for any indication, if they are approved for marketing, commercial success of our product candidates will depend, in part, upon the availability of coverage and reimbursement from third-party payors at the federal, state and private levels. In addition, in many countries outside the United States, a drug must be approved for reimbursement before it can be approved for sale in that country.

 

Eligibility for reimbursement does not imply that any drug will be paid for in all cases or at a rate that covers our costs, including research, development, manufacture, sale and distribution. Interim reimbursement levels for new drugs, if applicable, may also not be sufficient to cover costs and may not be made permanent. Reimbursement rates may vary according to the use of the drug and the clinical setting in which it is used, may be based on reimbursement levels already set for lower cost drugs and may be incorporated into existing payments for other services. Net prices for drugs may be reduced by mandatory discounts or rebates required by government healthcare programs or private payors and by any future relaxation of laws that presently restrict imports of drugs from countries where they may be sold at lower prices than in the United States. Third-party payors often rely upon Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own reimbursement policies.

 

In many countries outside the United States, a drug must be approved for reimbursement before it can be approved for sale in that country. Approval by the FDA does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions, and approval by one foreign regulatory authority does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other foreign countries or by the FDA. The foreign regulatory approval process may include all of the risks associated with obtaining FDA approval. We may not obtain foreign regulatory approvals on a timely basis, if at all. We may not be able to file for regulatory approvals and may not receive necessary approvals to commercialize our products in any foreign market.

 

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The regulations that govern marketing approvals, pricing and reimbursement for new drug products vary widely from country to country. In the United States, recently passed legislation may significantly change the approval requirements in ways that could involve additional costs and cause delays in obtaining approvals. Some countries require approval of the sale price of a drug before it can be marketed. In many countries, the pricing review period begins after marketing or product licensing approval is granted. In some foreign markets, prescription pharmaceutical pricing remains subject to continuing governmental control even after initial approval is granted.

 

Government authorities and third-party payors, such as private health insurers and health maintenance organizations, decide which medications they will pay for and establish reimbursement levels. A primary trend in the U.S. healthcare industry and elsewhere is cost containment. Government authorities and third-party payors have attempted to control costs by limiting coverage and the amount of reimbursement for particular medications. Increasingly, third-party payors are requiring that drug companies provide them with predetermined discounts from list prices and are challenging the prices charged for medical products.

 

Other Regulations

 

We are also subject to numerous federal, state, and local laws relating to such matters as safe working conditions, manufacturing practices, environmental protection, fire hazard control, and disposal of hazardous or potentially hazardous substances. We may incur significant costs to comply with such laws and regulations now or in the future.

 

COMPETITION

 

The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are characterized by continuing technological advancement and significant competition. While we believe that our technology platforms, product candidates, know-how, experience and scientific resources provide us with competitive advantages, we face competition from major pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, academic institutions, governmental agencies and public and private research institutions, among others. Any product candidates that we successfully develop and commercialize will compete with existing therapies and new therapies that may become available in the future. Key product features that would affect our ability to effectively compete with other therapeutics include the efficacy, safety and convenience of our products. The level of generic competition and the availability of reimbursement from government and other third-party payers will also significantly impact the pricing and competitiveness of our products. Our competitors also may obtain FDA or other regulatory approval for their products more rapidly than we may obtain approval for ours, which could result in our competitors establishing a strong market position before we are able to enter the market.

 

Many of our competitors have significantly greater financial resources and expertise in research and development, manufacturing, preclinical testing, conducting clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals and marketing approved products than we do. Smaller or early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies. These competitors also compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel and establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs.

 

EMPLOYEES

 

As of March 22, 2023, we have one full-time and one part-time employee. In addition to our employees, we engage key consultants and utilize the services of independent contractors to perform various services on our behalf. Some of our executive officers and directors are engaged in outside business activities that we do not believe conflict with our business. Over time, we may be required to hire additional employees or engage independent contractors to execute various projects that are necessary to grow and develop our business. These decisions will be made by our officers and directors, if and when appropriate.

 

CORPORATE INFORMATION

 

Our principal executive office is located at 302, 6 Butler Street, Camberwell, VIC, 3124 Australia. Our telephone number is 61 03 9882 0780. Our website is www.propanc.com. We can be contacted online at www.propanc.com/contact. Our website’s information is not, and will not be deemed, a part of this Registration Statement or incorporated into any other filings we make with the SEC.

 

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RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

 

On November 3, 2022, the Company entered into a Common Stock Purchase Agreement (the “Coventry Purchase Agreement”) with Coventry Enterprises, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company (“Coventry”), providing for an equity financing facility (the “Coventry Equity Line”). The Coventry Purchase Agreement provides that upon the terms and subject to the conditions in the Coventry Purchase Agreement, Coventry is committed to purchase up to five million dollars of shares of Common Stock over a 36-month term as set forth in the Coventry Purchase Agreement. In connection with the entry into the Coventry Purchase Agreement, and a $100,000 promissory note in favor of Coventry, but for no additional consideration, we issued 75 million shares of our Common Stock to Coventry, which were valued, using the relative fair value method, at $37,500. We issued the shares in reliance on the exemption from registration pursuant to Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act (in that the shares of Common Stock were issued by us in a transaction not involving any public offering).

 

Under the terms of the Coventry Purchase Agreement, Coventry will not be obligated to purchase shares of Common Stock unless and until certain conditions are met, including but not limited to a Registration Statement on Form S-1 (the “Coventry Registration Statement”) becoming effective, which registers Coventry’s resale of any Common Stock purchased by Coventry under the Coventry Equity Line. From time to time over the 36-month term set forth in the Coventry Purchase Agreement, commencing on the trading day immediately following the date on which the Coventry Registration Statement becomes effective, the Company, in its sole discretion, may provide Coventry with a draw down notice (each, a “Coventry Drawdown Notice”), to purchase a specified number of shares of Common Stock (each, a “Coventry Drawdown Amount Requested”), subject to the limitations discussed below. The actual amount of proceeds the Company will receive pursuant to each Coventry Drawdown Notice (each, a “Coventry Drawdown Amount”) is to be determined by multiplying the Coventry Drawdown Amount Requested by the applicable purchase price. The purchase price of each share of Common Stock equals 80% of the lowest trading price of the Common Stock during the ten business days prior to the applicable Coventry Drawdown Notice Date. The Coventry Drawdown Notice Date shall mean (i) the Business Day a Coventry Drawdown Notice is received by email by Coventry if such notice is received on or prior to 8:00 a.m. New York time or (ii) the immediately succeeding Business Day if it is received by email after 8:00 a.m. New York time on a Business Day or at any time on a day which is not a Business Day. Coventry Drawdown Notice shall mean a written notice from the Company to Coventry setting forth the number of shares of the Company’s Common Stock which the Company intends to require Coventry to purchase pursuant to the terms of the Coventry Purchase Agreement.

 

The maximum number of shares of Common Stock requested to be purchased pursuant to any single Coventry Drawdown Notice cannot exceed the lesser of (i) 200% of the average daily share volume of the Common Stock in the ten (10) trading days immediately preceding the Coventry Drawdown Notice Date or (ii) an aggregate value of $250,000.

 

On February 14, 2023, the Company entered into a securities purchase agreement (the “ONE44 Purchase Agreement”) with ONE44 Capital LLC (“ONE44”), pursuant to which ONE44 purchased a convertible promissory note (the “ONE44 Note”) from the Company in the aggregate principal amount of $111,111, such principal and the interest thereon convertible into shares of Common Stock at the option of ONE44. The transaction contemplated by the ONE44 Purchase Agreement closed on February 16, 2023. The Company intends to use the net proceeds ($100,000) from the ONE44 Note for general working capital purposes. The ONE44 Note contains an original issue discount amount of $11,111.

 

The maturity date of the ONE44 Note is February 14, 2024 (the “ONE44 Maturity Date”). The ONE44 Note bears interest at a rate of 10% per annum. Interest is payable only in shares of Common Stock and is due and payable only contemporaneously with a payment of principal, whether at the ONE44 Maturity Date or upon acceleration or by prepayment, as described below. ONE44 is entitled, at its option, at any time after the six-month anniversary of the ONE44 Note, to convert all or any amount of the principal face amount of the ONE44 Note then outstanding into shares of Common Stock at a per-share price equal to 60% of the lowest trading price of the Common Stock, as reported by the OTC Markets Group (if the shares of the Common Stock are then quoted thereon) or by any securities exchange upon which the Common Stock is then listed, for the ten prior trading days including the day upon which a notice of conversion is received by the Company. In the event the Company experiences a DTC “Chill” on its shares, the conversion price shall then be decreased to 50% instead of 60% while that “Chill” is in effect. Notwithstanding the foregoing, ONE44 shall be restricted from effecting a conversion if such conversion, along with other shares of Common Stock then beneficially owned by ONE44 and its affiliates, exceeds 4.99% of the outstanding shares of Common Stock (which may be increased up to 9.9% of the outstanding shares of Common Stock upon 60 days’ prior written notice by ONE44 to the Company).

 

The Company may prepay the principal of the ONE44 Note and accrued interest until 180 days from the issuance date (August 13, 2023). If the ONE44 Note is prepaid within 60 days of the issuance date (April 15, 2023), then the prepayment premium shall be 120% of the face amount plus any accrued interest. If the ONE44 Note is prepaid after 60 days from the issuance date, but less than 120 days from the issuance date (June 14, 2023), then the prepayment premium shall be 130% of the face amount plus any accrued interest. If the ONE44 Note is prepaid after 120 days from the issuance date, up to 180 days from the issuance date (August 13, 2023), then the prepayment premium shall be 135% of the face amount plus any accrued interest. So long as the ONE44 Note is outstanding, the Company covenants not to, without prior written consent from ONE44, sell, lease, or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of its assets outside the ordinary course of business, which would render the Company a “shell company” as such term is defined in Rule 144.

 

Other than as described above, the ONE44 Note contains certain events of default, including failure to issue shares timely upon receipt of a notice of conversion, as well as certain customary events of default, including, among others, breach of covenants, representations, or warranties, insolvency, bankruptcy, liquidation, and failure by the Company to pay the principal and interest due under the ONE44 Note. Upon the occurrence and during the continuation of certain events of default, the ONE44 Note will accrue an annual interest rate of 24% or, if such rate is usurious or not permitted by current law, then at the highest rate of interest permitted by law.

 

AVAILABLE INFORMATION

 

Copies of our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and other documents that we will file with or furnish to the SEC will be available free of charge by sending a written request to our Corporate Secretary at our corporate headquarters. Additionally, the documents we file with the SEC are or will be available free of charge at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Other information on the operation of the Public Reference Room may be obtained by calling the SEC at (800) SEC-0330. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding registrants that file electronically with the SEC. The SEC’s website is www.sec.gov.

 

We maintain a corporate website at www.propanc.com. You will be able to access our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports, proxy statements and other information to be filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act with the SEC free of charge at our website as soon as reasonably practicable after such material will be electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. The information contained in, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of this Annual Report

 

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THE OFFERING

 

Common Stock underlying Series B Warrants to Purchase Common Stock:  

The Selling Stockholder is offering up to 23,750 shares of Common Stock underlying Series B Warrants to purchase Common Stock. Each Series B Warrant has an exercise price per share equal to $40.00 per share and will expire on the three-year anniversary of its original issuance date. The Purchaser is not permitted to exercise portion of the Series B Warrants that would result in the Purchaser, together with its affiliates and certain related parties, beneficially owning more than 4.99% of our outstanding Common Stock following the consummation of this offering.

     
Selling Stockholder   Ionic Ventures, LLC
     
Use of proceeds   We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of Common Stock by the Selling Stockholder. All of the net proceeds from the sale of our Common Stock will go to the Selling Stockholder as described below in the sections entitled “Selling Stockholder” and “Plan of Distribution”. See “Use of Proceeds” on page [54] of this prospectus.
     
Risk factors   Investing in our securities is highly speculative and involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the information set forth in the “Risk Factors” section beginning on page [27] before deciding to invest in our securities.
     
Trading symbol   Our Common Stock is currently quoted on the OTCQB under the trading symbol “PPCB”.

 

Summary of Risks

 

Our business is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties that you should understand before making an investment decision. For example, we have no commercial product, a history of net losses, we expect to continue to incur net losses, we will require significant additional funding and we may not achieve or maintain profitability. Furthermore, we have no cash flow from operations to sustain our operations. We have historically relied upon the issuance of equity and/or convertible debt to fund our operations, which debt we are currently unable to repay in cash. Our ability to ever generate revenues will depend solely on the commercial success of PRP, our only prospective product, which depends upon its approval by applicable regulatory authorities and then market acceptance by purchasers in the pharmaceutical market and the future market demand and medical need for products and research utilizing PRP. At present, PRP has only been used for research and clinical trial purposes in animals, and there is no commercially approved drug product or drug product submitted in a pending marketing application that incorporates PRP as an ingredient. As a result, no marketing authority has reviewed our drug master file (DMF) for PRP as a product ingredient or inspected our Company. As of December 31, 2022, we have an accumulated deficit of $63,069,163 since inception. We have incurred substantial net losses since our inception, including net loss of $3,358,427 and $2,417,696 for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2022 and June 30, 2021, respectively. We expect to incur additional losses as we continue to invest in our research and development programs and move forward with our human clinical trials application, clinical trials and commercialization activities. Additional risks are discussed more fully in the section entitled “Risk Factors” following this prospectus summary. These risks include, but are not limited to, the following:

 

  Our ability to continue as a going concern absent obtaining adequate new debt and/or equity financings.

 

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  We face risks related to Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) which could significantly disrupt our research and development, operations, sales, and financial results.
     
  We have incurred significant losses since our inception, and we expect to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future and may never achieve or maintain profitability.
     
  We will continue to need substantial additional funding and raise capital when needed to initiate and continue our product development programs and commercialization efforts.
     
  As an early-stage company, it may be difficult for you to evaluate the success of our business to date and to assess our future viability.
     
  We currently rely, and may continue to rely for the foreseeable future, on substantial debt financing that we are not able to repay in cash.
     
  Raising additional capital is highly likely to cause dilution to our stockholders, restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to our technologies or product candidate.
     
  The conversion of some or all of our currently outstanding convertible notes in shares of our Common Stock will dilute the ownership interests of existing stockholders.
     
  It may be difficult for you to evaluate the success of our business to date and to assess our future viability.
     
  Our only product candidate, PRP, remains in the early stages of development and may never become commercially viable, and therefore, you may lose your investment.
     
  PRP may cause undesirable side effects that could negatively impact its clinical trial results or limit its use, hindering further development, subject us to possible product liability claims, and make it more difficult to commercialize PRP.
     
  Our ability to successfully initiate and complete our clinical trials of PRP.
     
  Our ability to obtain regulatory approval in jurisdictions in the United States and outside the United States to be able to market PRP in those jurisdictions.
     
  Our ability in the future to establish sales and marketing capabilities or enter into agreements with third parties to sell and market PRP.
     
  We face substantial competition, which may result in others discovering, developing or commercializing products before or more successfully than we do.
     
  Our ability to seek approval for reimbursement for PRP before it can be marketed, assuming successful commercialization, and us being then subject to unfavorable pricing regulations, third-party reimbursement practices or healthcare reform initiatives.
     
  We may depend on collaborations with third parties for the development and commercialization of PRP, and these collaborations may be unsuccessful.
     
  Our third-party manufacturers of PRP performing satisfactorily or at all, and our reliance on any third-party for the supply of PRP.

 

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  Our ability to comply with our obligations under any intellectual property licenses with third parties.
     
  Our ability to protect our intellectual property rights.
     
  Our ability to obtain, or if there are delays in obtaining, required regulatory approvals, to commercialize PRP, and our ability to generate revenue.
     
  Our ability to obtain marketing approval in international jurisdictions to market PRP in international jurisdictions.
     
  Our ability to obtain marketing approval of and commercialize PRP and affect the prices we may obtain.

 

  PRP or any other product candidate for which we obtain marketing approval could be subject to restrictions or withdrawal from the market and our ability to comply with applicable regulatory requirements.
     
  We rely on the significant experience and specialized expertise of the Chief Executive Officer/Chief Financial Officer, James Nathanielsz.
     
  We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting that, if not properly remediated, could result in material misstatements in our consolidated financial statements in future periods.
     
  Our ability to implement and maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, and accordingly, our ability to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud.
     
  The market price of our Common Stock may continue to be highly volatile, and you may not be able to resell your shares at or above the public offering price and therefore, you could lose all or part of your investment.
     
  Our shares of Common Stock are thinly traded and there may not be an active, liquid trading market for our common shares.
     
  Our Chief Executive Officer/Chief Financial Officer is our controlling stockholder and will continue to control our Company for the foreseeable future due to his ownership of super-voting shares, and therefore, it is not likely that you will be able to elect directors or have any say in the policies of our Company.
     
  Future sales and issuances of our capital stock or rights to purchase capital stock will result in additional dilution of the percentage ownership of our stockholders and could cause our stock price to decline.
     
  We are a smaller reporting company, and therefore, we are subject to scaled disclosure requirements that may make it more challenging for investors to analyze our results of operations and financial prospects.
     
  other risks, including those described in the “Risk Factors” discussion of this prospectus.

 

We operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for us to predict all of those risks, nor can we assess the impact of all of those risks on our business or the extent to which any factor may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statement. The forward-looking statements in this prospectus are based on assumptions management believes are reasonable. However, due to the uncertainties associated with forward-looking statements, you should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. Further, forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made, and unless required by law, we expressly disclaim any obligation or undertaking to publicly update any of them in light of new information, future events, or otherwise.

 

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RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our Common Stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below, as well as the other information in this prospectus, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” before deciding whether to invest in our Common Stock. The occurrence of any of the events or developments described below could harm our business, financial condition, operating results, and growth prospects. In such an event, the market price of our Common Stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial also may impair our business operations.

 

RISKS RELATED TO THIS OFFERING AND OWNERSHIP OF OUR SECURITIES

 

An investment in shares of Common Stock and the warrants are extremely speculative and there can be no assurance of any return on any such investment.

 

An investment in the shares of Common Stock and the warrants is extremely speculative and there is no assurance that investors will obtain any return on their investment. Investors will be subject to substantial risks involved in an investment in us, including the risk of losing their entire investment.